Five-axis linkage CNC technology

Equipment manufacturing is the cornerstone of a country's industry. It provides an important means for the development of new technologies, new products and modern industrial production. It is an indispensable strategic industry. Even the developed industrialized countries are highly valued.

The strategic value of the five-axis linkage CNC machine tool manufacturing industry is the cornerstone of a country's industry, it provides an important means for the development of new technologies, new products and modern industrial production, is an indispensable strategic industry. Even the developed industrialized countries are highly valued. In recent years, with the rapid development of China's national economy and the need for national defense construction, there is an urgent need for high-end CNC machine tools. Machine tools are a symbol of the country's manufacturing level. On behalf of the highest level of machine tool manufacturing, the five-axis linkage CNC machine tool system, in a sense, reflects the state of industrial development of a country. For a long time, the western industrialized countries led by the United States have always used the five-axis linkage CNC machine tool system as an important strategic material to implement an export licensing system. In particular, during the Cold War, the embargo was imposed on the socialist camps such as China and the former Soviet Union. A friend who loves military affairs may know the famous "Toshiba Incident": At the end of the last century, Toshiba Corporation of Japan sold several five-axis CNC milling machines to the former Soviet Union. As a result, the propellers used by the former Soviet Union to manufacture submarines were upgraded several times. The sonar of the American butterfly ship could not monitor the sound of the submarine. Therefore, Toshiba in the United States violated the strategic material embargo policy and punish Toshiba. It can be seen that the five-axis linkage CNC machine tool system has a significant influence on a country's aviation, aerospace, military, scientific research, precision instruments, high-precision medical equipment and other industries. Nowadays, it is generally believed that the five-axis linkage CNC machine tool system is the only means to solve the processing of impellers, blades, marine propellers, heavy-duty generator rotors, turbine rotors, large diesel engine crankshafts, etc. Therefore, whenever people encounter difficult problems in designing and developing complex surfaces, they often turn to the five-axis CNC system. Because the five-axis linkage CNC machine tool system is very expensive, and the NC program is difficult to make, it is difficult for the five-axis system to be "civilian". However, in recent years, with the breakthrough development of computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) systems, many Chinese CNC companies such as Shanxing Company have launched five-axis linkage CNC machine tools, breaking foreign technology. The blockade has occupied the supreme point of this strategic industry and greatly reduced its application cost, thus bringing the Chinese equipment manufacturing industry to a new era! The development of modern science represented by information technology has injected a strong impetus into the equipment manufacturing industry. At the same time, it has placed stronger demands on it, and more prominently, the mechanical equipment manufacturing industry as a carrier of high-tech industrialization is promoting the whole social technological progress and industry. There is no substitute for the basic role of the upgrade. As the driving force of national economic growth and technological upgrading, the mechanical equipment manufacturing industry marked by five-axis linkage will progress along with the development of high-tech and emerging industries. China must not only be a big country in the world, but also a world power! It is expected that in the near future, with the popularization and promotion of the five-axis linkage CNC machine tool system, it will surely lay a solid foundation for China to become the world's most powerful country!

The machining center of the five-axis linkage machining center is generally divided into a vertical machining center and a horizontal machining center. The most effective machining surface of the vertical machining center (three axes) is only the top surface of the workpiece, and the horizontal machining center is also operated by the rotary table. Only four sides of the workpiece can be machined. At present, the high-end machining center is developing in the direction of five-axis control. The five-axis linkage machining center has the characteristics of high efficiency and high precision, and the workpiece can be processed in one time with the pentahedron. For example, the high-end numerical control system with five-axis linkage can also perform high-precision machining on complex spatial surfaces, and it is more suitable for processing modern molds such as auto parts and aircraft structural parts. (In this issue, the vertical five-axis machining center is introduced.) The vertical five-axis machining center has two types of rotary axes for the machining center. One is the rotary axis of the table. The table set on the bed can be rotated around the X axis, defined as the A axis, and the A axis generally works from +30 degrees to -120 degrees. There is also a turntable in the middle of the table, which is rotated around the Z axis at the position shown, defined as the C axis, and the C axis is 360 degrees. Thus, through the combination of the A-axis and the C-axis, the workpieces fixed on the table can be machined by the vertical spindle except for the bottom surface. The minimum index value of the A-axis and the C-axis is generally 0.001 degrees, so that the workpiece can be subdivided into arbitrary angles, and the inclined surface, the inclined hole, and the like can be processed. If the A-axis and the C-axis are linked with the XYZ three linear axes, complex spatial surfaces can be machined. Of course, this requires high-end CNC systems, servo systems, and software support. The advantage of this arrangement is that the structure of the spindle is relatively simple, the rigidity of the spindle is very good, and the manufacturing cost is relatively low. However, the general workbench cannot be designed too large, and the load-bearing weight is also small. Especially when the A-axis rotation is greater than or equal to 90 degrees, the workpiece will bring a large load-bearing moment to the workbench when it is cut. The other is the rotation of the vertical spindle head. The front end of the spindle is a turret, which can wrap 360 degrees around the Z-axis to become the C-axis. The slewing head also has an A-axis that can rotate around the X-axis, generally up to ±90 degrees, to achieve the same function. The advantage of this arrangement is that the spindle machining is very flexible and the workbench can be designed very large. The huge fuselage of the passenger aircraft and the huge engine casing can be processed on such machining centers. This design also has a big advantage: when we use the spherical milling cutter to machine the surface, when the tool center line is perpendicular to the working surface, the surface quality of the workpiece cut by the vertex will be poor due to the zero velocity of the vertex of the spherical milling cutter. The design of the spindle rotation makes the spindle rotate through an angle with respect to the workpiece, so that the spherical milling cutter avoids the cutting of the vertex, ensuring a certain line speed and improving the surface processing quality. This structure is very popular with the high-precision surface machining of the mold, which is difficult to achieve in the rotary machining center of the table. In order to achieve high precision of the rotation, the high-end rotary shaft is also equipped with circular encoder feedback, and the indexing accuracy is within a few seconds. Of course, the rotary structure of such a spindle is complicated and the manufacturing cost is also high. Http:// Editor: (Hardware Business Network Information Center)

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